chemical composition of palm oil

A much harder stearin is also available with as much as 79% palmitic acid. same fruit are entirely different in fatty acid composition and properties. By judging the amount of hydrogenation of the stearin carefully, an almost identical melting behaviour can be obtained, with applications in confectionery and other food uses. It does not contain any cholesterol. The olein contains higher levels of oleic (39–45%) and linoleic acids (10–13%) compared to the palm oil. Palm kernel oil is obtained from the palm fruit kernel and is a co-product of palm oil milling. PKS – Palm Kernel Stearin Palm oil has high contents of disaturated (POP and PPO) and monosaturated (POO and OPO) TAGs. Products of iodine value around 33–35, previously only available through solvent fractionation, can now be produced from dry fractionation processes. Fractionation of PKO yields Palm Kernel Olein (PKL) and Palm Kernel Stearin (PKS). This stearin has a tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) content of 60% and is used as hard stock for soft margarines and in infant fat formulas. Palm oil is distinguished from other oil by its high level of palmitic acid (C16:0). Having a naturally semi solid characteristic at room temperature with a specific origin melting point between 33ºC to 39ºC, it does not require hydrogenation for use as a foods ingredient. Palm oil gradually increases in liquid oil content until it melts at about 36°C. After hydrogenation, the shape of the melting curve is little changed, but it moves to a higher temperature by 4 or 5°C. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The Chemistry of Oils and Fats, CRC Press, 2004 3. 4. Fatty Acid Composition Another stearin, produced from a second fractionation of the olein, is called palm mid-fraction (Figure 3.2). Palm oil is unique among vegetable oils in having a significant amount of saturated acids (10–15%) at the 2-position of its TAGs. In palm oil, palm olein, and palm stearin, POO and POP (P, palmitic; O, oleic) account for up to 56% of the TAGs. chemical composition of oil palm empty fruit bunch and its decomposition in the field wingkis rabumi fp 1998 3 . Characteristics of Malaysian Palm Kernel and Its Products, Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol 25, 2013. Figure 3.2 shows the products obtained from multiple fractionations of palm oil. A more detailed profile of the TAGs is seen in Table 3.3. Because of their low unsaturation, the lauric oils are also very stable to oxidation. The fatty acid chains present in the palm oil triglycerides could vary in the number of carbons present in the chain (chain length) and in structure (presence of double bonds, i.e., unsaturation). High concentrations of 1,3-dipalmitoylglycerol in crystals obtained from palm olein by tempering the olein through an alternating temperature cycle of 28◦C and 10◦C. These have higher levels of oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 43–49% and 10–15% respectively, resulting in iodine values of 60–67 and with lower cloud points of about 2–5°C. Other crystallisation inducers are diacylglycerols such as dipalmitoylglycerol. The TAG of palm oil consists of C46 to C56 molecules in a near normal distribution, the major TAGs being of C50 and C52. Like RBD palm oil, RPO contains approximately 50% saturated fat, 42% of which is palmitic acid (16:0) (Kritchevsky, D., 2000). It is notable that diacylglycerols are preferentially distributed into the olein phase during fractionation. Change ), 2. SSS TAGs provide structure, SSU TAGs provide both structure and lubricity, and the lower-melting unsaturated TAGs provide lubricity only. Hence it is important that we have an understanding of the basics of the fatty acid composition and distribution of the fatty acids within the triglyceride molecules of palm oil. Fats melting sharply just below mouth temperature leave a clean, cool, non-greasy sensation on the palate, impossible for any of the common non-lauric oils to match. Triacylglycerol (TAG) Composition of Palm Kernel Oil. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. Palm oil and its components are increasingly used in foods such as cooking oils, margarines, shortenings, and confectionery products. 5. The oil can be easily separated into two products, palm olein and palm stearin. Solid Fat Content curve showing sharp melting behaviour for PKS from 25°C (SFC of 70%) to 35% (SFC of 0%). ( Log Out /  This oil contains high C50 (POP) TAG (Table 3.6) and is utilised in manufacture of a cocoa butter equivalent. The kernel oil is characterised by its high level of shorter and medium fatty acid chain lengths (C6–C14). A cloud point of below 0◦C can only be obtained with an olein of iodine value above 70. Palm Oil : Production, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS Press, 2012 In palm oil, most of the fatty acids are C16 (i.e. Production and Exports The largest palm kernel oil producing country by … C36 is the most abundant TAG in PKO, mainly trilaurin (21%) due to high levels of the acid, followed by C38 (15%). The fatty acid compositions of palm oil are shown below. Nutiva brand red palm oil is produced by a cold filtration process. In addition to POO and PPO, palm stearin also predominantly contains PPP, a completely saturated TAG. Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. Palm kernel oil, on the other hand, is still a hard solid at 25°C, but then melts very abruptly below 30°C. The kernel oil is characterised by its high level of shorter and medium fatty acid chain lengths (C6–C14). Read this article : About Palm Oil CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PALM OILS : Crude palm Oil: PALM OIL Palm oil, being a vegetable oils, is cholesterol-free. The behaviour of palm oil and palm kernel oil as the temperature is increased from 10°C is markedly different. Palm oil and palm kernel oil are different in characteristic and properties even though they are derived from the same fruit. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids (Table 1.1). have 16 carbon atoms) and higher, while in palm kernel oil, they are C14 and lower. It’s odourless, high in unsaturated fats (and without trans-fats), incredibly resistant to spoilage, and has a high smoking point . TAGs. ( Log Out /  Palm stearin, the harder fraction of palm oil, contains the more saturated fatty acids and TAGs. The differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine value not exceeding 60 and those above 60 are detailed in Table 3.3. In contrast, oleins with IV of less than 60 have cloud point of 6–10°C. Fatty Acid Composition of Palm Oil, Palm Oil Fractions and Palm Kernel Oil, Palm Oil Commercial Specification and Quality, Follow Oil Palm Knowledge Base on Palm oil and palm kernel oil are different in characteristic and properties even though they are derived from the same fruit. 1. Every fat and oil possesses a natural FA distribution among the glycerides, which affects a product’s consistency as either a solid or a liquid. The TAG (triacylglyceride) profile of palm oil has been characterised by carbon-number gas. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. The versatility and adaptability of palm oil to different food applications is the result of its chemical composition (Yap et al., 1989). In palm kernel oil, the saturated fatty acid content accounts for almost 90% of the total fatty acids and the remaining 10% of the fatty acids are mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. PO – Palm Oil However, crude red palm oil that has been refi… Vegetable Oil in Food Technology, Blackwell Publishing, 2012

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